LEYENDA NEGRA ESPAÑOLA: UNA RAZÓN INTERESADA Y PROPAGANDÍSTICA

Falsos mitos y versiones interesadas de la época contra el Imperio español forjaron la Leyenda Negra que arrastra España hasta nuestros días.   Investigaciones de los últimos años pretenden...
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Falsos mitos y versiones interesadas de la época contra el Imperio español forjaron la Leyenda Negra que arrastra España hasta nuestros días.

 

Investigaciones de los últimos años pretenden poner en su sitio la historia de España, un país injustamente tratado, desde dentro y desde fuera, por las versiones sesgadas.

 

Sobre el principio de la leyenda

 

 

Cuentan las últimas revisiones históricas interdisciplinares que las causas y los  orígenes de tal Leyenda Negra de España no es mas que un tópico forjado tras el final de la Guerra de Flandes o Guerra de los 80 Años (156-1648).

 

Esta Guerra se ha presentado siempre en los colegios holandeses como una lucha de liberación contra España. Así, Guillermo de Orange era el heroico padre de la patria, protestante que luchó contra el ocupante católico, Felipe II, y el duque de Alba, gobernador español, el personaje sanguinario que ejecutó la órdenes del monarca español.

 

Sin embargo, Felipe II no era un tirano invasor, era el soberano legítimo, herencia que recibió de su padre, de las Diecisiete Provincias, denominación que durante el siglo XVI se otorgó a los 17 territorios de la región de los Países Bajos [que comprendía los actuales Países Bajos, Bélgica, Luxemburgo, el Norte de Francia, y una parte del oeste de Alemania], pero estas ya eran independientes de España.

 

Antes de que todo se desbordara, el objetivo era ganar libertades para los protestantes y que las ciudades y autoridades locales tuvieran más poder de decisión. Pero el conflicto se transformó en guerra civil con un grupo pequeño de calvinistas defendiendo su religión y modelo socia, y la nobleza,católica, que quiso dominar la situación para proteger sus intereses. Al principio, el 90% de los holandeses era católico y el calvinismo minoritario durante siglos, pero la historia del país necesitaba un enemigo extranjero para demostrar que se había luchado contra el opresor por la libertad política y la intolerancia religiosa: el Imperio español.

 

Lo cierto es que también hubo guerras de religión en Francia e Inglaterra, es decir, el conflicto religioso católico-protestante fue internacional porque el protestantismo ya existía en otros países. En Inglaterra la gran persecución de católicos sólo estaba empezando en 1572, en Francia las matanzas eran cosa de cada día, después de 1572 en los Países Bajos murieron más oponentes religiosos a manos de los calvinistas rebeldes que en todo el reinado de Felipe bajo la Inquisición.

 

El final inesperado de esta Guerra fue el reconocimiento de la corona española de la independencia de las Siete Provincias Unidas (Paz de Westfalia, 1648) y la creación de los Países Bajos y Bélgica.

 

Más tarde, en el siglo XVII, esta Guerra es ya global y de índole económica, con la presencia de holandeses en Asia o el Caribe convertida ya en potencia mercantil en pugna con España por la dominación de los océanos y las colonias. En todo ello, Bélgica es la gran olvidada, porque permaneció al lado de Felipe II.

 

Sobre la Armada Invencible

 

En 1589, un año después de la derrota de la “Armada Invencible”, enviada por Felipe II contra Inglaterra, Isabel I, la reina inglesa, manda invadir la Península Ibérica con la “Invencible Inglesa” (o Contra Armada) con la intención de acabar con los restos de la flota  española para arrebatar a España el control de las rutas comerciales hacia el Nuevo Mundo.

 

Si a la derrota de la “Invencible” se le han dedicado ríos de tinta, el mayor desastre naval inglés se ha ocultado celosamente durante siglos, pero su responsable, Sir Francis Drake, cayó en desgracia.

El objetivo prioritario inglés era acabar de destruir el grueso de los restos de la “Armada Invencible” (Grande y Felicísima Armada), que se encontraban en reparación mayoritariamente en Santander, para obligar a Felipe II a aceptar los términos de paz que Inglaterra impusiese, y de esta forma, arrebatar a España el control de las rutas comerciales hacia el Nuevo Mundo.

 

La expedición inglesa, que basó su estrategia fundamentalmente en ataques por sorpresa,  fue financiada con 80.000 libras de las cuales un cuarto lo pagó la reina, un octavo el gobierno holandés y el resto varios nobles, mercaderes, navieros y gremios. Todos ellos esperaban no ya recuperar lo invertido, sino obtener grandes beneficios.

Quizá el punto más controvertido de  la expedición de la “Contra Armada  Invencible” Inglesa fue la decisión de otorgar el mando de la escuadra a Sir Francis Drake. Muchos de sus compañeros no le consideraban el adecuado para mandar una gran expedición naval (los hechos posteriores los demostrarían), y aunque si bien Drake había obtenido notables éxitos actuando como corsario y pirata, habían criticado duramente su actitud durante la campaña de la “Invencible” española el año anterior, aunque Drake finalmente consiguió atribuirse todo el mérito de la derrota española, mérito, por cierto, de todo punto más que dudoso para muchos historiadores.

 

En total la flota inglesa contó con entre 170 y 200 naves como galeones reales, buques mercantes, urcas holandesas, pinazas, barcazas y lanchas  (la “Armada Invencible” estuvo compuesta por entre 121 y 137 barcos) y unos 27. 667 combatientes (tropas de tierra y navales) que partieron del puerto de Plymouth el  13 de abril de 1589. 

 

Debido a la imposibilidad de defenderse o huir, los barcos ingleses atacados sufrieron un terrible castigo, siendo finalmente apresados 4 buques de entre 300 y 500 toneladas, un patache de 60 toneladas y una lancha de 20 remos. Durante aquellos durísimos ataques murieron unos 570 ingleses, y unos 130 fueron hechos prisioneros. Por su parte, los españoles solo lamentaron 2 muertos y 10 heridos.

 

A finales de junio, la flota inglesa navegaba dispersa y en retirada por el Cantábrico camino de Inglaterra. La operación acabó en una total derrota sin precedentes para los ingleses y constituyó un rotundo fracaso.

 

A raíz de este desastre, el que había sido hasta entonces héroe popular en Inglaterra, Sir Francis Drake, que arribó a Plymouth el 10 de julio con las manos vacías, habiendo perdido a más de la mitad de sus hombres y numerosas embarcaciones, y habiendo fracasado absolutamente en todos los objetivos de la expedición, cayó en desgracia.

 

Aparte de perder la oportunidad de aprovechar el que la Armada española estaba en horas bajas, los costes de la expedición agotaron el tesoro real de Isabel I cuyas pérdidas superaron las 160.000 libras.

 

Ante la magnitud del desastre, las autoridades inglesas nombraron una comisión para tratar de esclarecer las causas de la derrota, pero finalmente se decidió silenciar la derrota por conveniencias políticas y propagandísticas de tal forma que poco o nada se supo durante siglos.

 

Sobre Felipe II

 

 

Felipe II (1527-1598) fue monarca de España; de Nápoles y Sicilia (1554); de Portugal; y de Inglaterra e Irlanda por su matrimonio con María Tudor; de toda la América del sur; y de  las islas Filipinas y otros territorios de Asia. Llegó a gobernar más de la mitad de Europa occidental. Era el monarca más poderoso de la tierra en aquel momento, por eso se decía que en cuyos dominios nunca se ponía el sol.

 

No es de extrañar, por tanto, la inquina que despertaba en los demás monarcas y líderes de la época y que algunos le denominaran incluso el «demonio del Sur».

 

 

Fue un hombre considerado como inteligente, muy culto y formado, aficionado a los libros, la pintura y el coleccionismo de obras de arte, relojes, armas, curiosidades, rarezas y muy especialmente a la arquitectura. Era un gran aficionado a la caza y la pesca.

 

Era, nos cuentan los biógrafos, de carácter taciturno, prudente, sosegado, constante y considerado, y muy religioso, aunque sin caer en el fanatismo del que le acusaban sus enemigos.

 

Dicen ciertos estudios psicológicos de su persona que era reservado y ocultó su timidez e inseguridad bajo una seriedad que le valió una imagen de frialdad e insensibilidad. No tuvo muchos amigos, y ninguno gozó completamente de su confianza, pero no fue el personaje oscuro y amargado que se ha transmitido en la historia a través de la leyenda negra.

 

El carácter obstinado y riguroso lo desarrolló desde la infancia pues tuvo una educación muy severa debido principalmente a que era el único heredero varón al trono y fue objeto de muchas presiones.

 

Mientras el joven Felipe crecía en España, desde el extranjero la lejana sombra de su padre, casi siempre ausente, proyectaba unas expectativas casi imposibles de cumplir. Carlos V era un hombre de acción, vencedor en múltiples batallas, un viajero cosmopolita que dominaba cinco idiomas, un maestro de la frase y un encantador de víboras políticas. No es difícil imaginar que Felipe II se sintiera abrumado por «la pesada carga, no solo política sino también psicológica y espiritual, de su herencia dinástica. La incapacidad de cumplir estas expectativas –básicamente porque sus talentos eran distintos a los de su padre– le causó una profunda inseguridad y falta de autoestima que arrastró durante toda su vida.

 

Felipe II nunca consiguió ser y mucho más parecido a Carlos V en su carácter. Sin ir más lejos, «el Rey prudente» sentía aversión por los escenarios bélicos y prefería ser quien enviaba a los soldados y no el que combatía, al contrario que su padre y su hermano, cuya actividad militar les había situado en la primera línea de múltiples batallas.

 

A pesar de todo, su trato humano era cordial, rara vez se le recuerdan arranques de ira, y no fue el personaje oscuro y amargado que se ha transmitido en la historia, aunque tampoco fue un hombre vitalista y alegre, basta decir que vivió la muerte de sus cuatro mujeres y de cinco hijos.

 

En relación a su fama de prudente, el testimonio de sus secretarios respalda que sus procesos de toma de decisión eran extremadamente lentos, en parte porque quería siempre supervisar hasta el último detalle

 

Sin ser el fanático religioso que han trazado sus enemigos, sí era profundamente religioso y tenía una visión mesiánica de sí mismo. Adora la rutina, el orden y la puntualidad y tenía un celo excesivo por la higiene personal.

 

Su leyenda negra surge en Europa debido a las numerosas guerras internacionales que mantenía el Imperio y que lo convertían en un enemigo potencial para todos los países cuya religión no era la defendida por éste (la religión católica), es decir, para los protestantes, luteranos, anglicanos o calvinistas de Inglaterra, Holanda, etc., que temían que al imponer una religión universal, Felipe II querría convertirse en Monarca Universal.

 

Esta leyenda fue favorecida por libros como: Exposición de algunas mañas de la Santa Inquisición española de Reginaldo Gonzalo Montanés, acusando el Imperio de fanatismo y crueldad a través de la Santa Inquisición; algunas obras de fray Bartolomé de las Casas, particularmente la titulada  Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias que se propone denunciar los destructivos efectos que tuvo para los pueblos indígenas de América la temprana colonización española; La Apología  escrita por Guillermo de Orange y que acusa Felipe II del asesino de su propio hijo Carlos y de su esposa Isabel de Valois por motivos muy oscuros.

 

También por aspecto relacionados con su vida privada como la supuesta relación secreta del rey con Ana de Mendoza y que dice que su segundo hijo Diego era en realidad el hijo ilegitimo del rey o la que dice que  vivía amancebado con su propia hermana Juana.

 

Su secretario, Antonio Pérez, también contribuyó en gran medida en aumentar la mala imagen del monarca.

 

Otra leyenda faltsa es la que dice que se encerraba en Castilla y en El Escorial carece de fundamento. De hecho, fue el monarca más viajero de su tiempo. Había pasado 14 meses en Inglaterra y cinco largos años en los Países Bajos; su experiencia sobre Alemania se basaba en el año y tres meses que residió en ese país; navegó por el Mediterráneo y el Atlántico, estuvo dos años y cuatro meses en Portugal, y en total pasó tres años en Aragón. Dentro de la Corona de Castilla, conoció todas las provincias, e hizo dos visitas al reino de Navarra. Su movilidad disminuyó en los últimos diez años de su vida, pero a lo largo de los sesenta años anteriores, nunca paró.

 

 

Sobre los conquistadores de América

 

En cuanto a las afirmaciones de genocidio que se han tenido por ciertas sobre la colonización americana de España cada vez son más las voces que se alzan sobre que esto no es más que falsos tópico y hechos sesgados y que la realidad es que España siempre consideró a esa parte del mundo como parte de ella misma. 

 

Y no solo eso. No se niega que en toda conquista “se producen desafueros”, pero subrayan que la Corona espñola fue la única potencia que practicó una política de inclusión, es decir, de mestizaje. sobre los pueblos colonizados, y que “ingleses, alemanes, belgas y deás optaron por la contraria, la de exclusión y que .el pueblo español fue pionero y desempeño el liderazgo cultural y socialque en muchos momentos no ha sido valorado en su medida.

 

Según muchos historiadores la epopeya española en América se cuenta a menudo como una mera enumeración de nombres, sin ser conscientes de la relevancia de lo que hicieron los conquistadores ni de sus “vidas de novela”, tan imbuidas del “espíritu caballeresco” de la época. Eran hombres pertenecientes a la nobleza media, segundones que podían ascender en la escala social y que, con todo, eran en buena medida afortunados puesto que “otros, como Cervantes, ni siquiera obtuvieron el permiso real” para buscar fortuna allende los mares.

 

Además, a raíz del “descubrimiento”, se precipita la revolución científica y técnica de la que seguimos “bebiendo” actualmente..

 

Sobre la sempiterna leyenda negra, dicen los expertos, nos la hemos creído especialmente nosotros, aunque siempre reaparece en el mundo anglosajón que no por casualidad era “el principal rival” del Imperio español.

 

Sobre otras teorías

 

El hispanista  

 Julián Juderías,  su clásico estudio de 1914.

 

Sin embargo, según un hispanista de la Universidad de Gotemburgo llamado Sverker Arnoldsson que  publicó en 1960 una de las primeras y más rigurosas investigaciones sobre la que denominó «la mayor alucinación colectiva de Occidente», situaba el origen de la Leyenda Negra no en los Países Bajos durante el reinado de Felipe II, sino en la Italia del siglo XIV, cuando sus ciudades-estado comienzan a verse amenazadas por la competencia comercial de los catalanes y la extensión mediterránea de Aragón.

 

Los italianos, señala Arnoldsson, perfilan entonces con trazo grueso este relato en negativo del español durante los siglos posteriores: codicia, astucia, crueldad, soberbia, desprecio de las artes útiles y fabriles, fanfarronería, origen impuro y semita, lujuria, fanatismo… Conceptos que, gracias en parte por el prestigio cultural italiano y en parte por el temor ante la expansión del imperio español, se extenderían por Europa, primero con el luteranismo en Alemania frente a Carlos V, y, después con Guillermo de Orange en los Países Bajos frente a Felipe II. Y desde entonces hasta ahora.

 

Desarmar de una vez por todas tan maniquea y falsa visión sobre España y los españoles, que siempre tuvo héroes, muchos siglos de historia que revisitar y una aportación impagable al Humanitarismo, es la labor que tendrán que afrontar historiadores e investigadores de aquí en adelante para dejar de lado sambenitos, flagelaciones y leyendas negras injustas e interesadas.

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CulturaEspaña

Periodista, blogger y escritora de contenidos.
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