La villa no poco cantada

Mucha gente, cuando oye el nombre de Álora (Málaga), antigua, noble y acogedora, le añade la expresión “la bien cercada”. El origen de esta afortunada expresión está en el...

Mucha gente, cuando oye el nombre de Álora (Málaga), antigua, noble y acogedora, le añade la expresión “la bien cercada”. El origen de esta afortunada expresión está en el romance fronterizo, uno de los mejores en su género, que cuenta la muerte del Adelantado de Andalucía, don Diego Ribera en las murallas de Álora, causada por una alevosa traición, cuando intentaba conquistar la plaza para los Reyes Católicos. Hoy se conserva en un estado aceptable el castillo que fue escenario de este suceso. El visitante puede conocerlo, después de subir la empinada calle Ancha y, desde allí, a la puerta del castillo, puede leer el romance escrito en sus muros y regalar los ojos con una de las mejores vistas paisajísticas del Valle del Guadalhorce. 

Pero hay otra referencia poética a la villa de Álora, no tan conocida y que vale la pena recordar. Se trata del Laberinto de Fortuna, del cordobés Juan de Mena. En este libro, también conocido por Las Trescientas, se trata del tópico medieval de la Fortuna y de su veleidosa y caprichosa voluntad, que a todos arrastra. En la coyuntura de hablar de personajes famosos que encontraron la muerte de forma inesperada, habla del Adelantado Don Diego de Ribera y describe su alevosa muerte en Álora. Recordemos la estrofa, que tiene el tono arcaizante y culto de toda la obra: 

Aquel que tú vees con la saetada
que nunca más faze mudanza del gesto,
mas por su virtud de morir tan honesto
dexa su sangre tan bien derramada
sobre la villa non poco cantada
el adelantado Diego de Ribera
es, el que fizo la vuestra frontera
tender las sus faldas más contra Granada. 

Álora es para Mena “la villa no poco cantada”, lo que quiere decir que, ya a finales del siglo XV (la primera edición del Laberinto se publica en Sevilla en 1499), el romance de Álora estaba bastante difundido. Si tenemos en cuenta que el romance relata un hecho ocurrido en 1434, sabemos que, por un lado, la composición del romance fue casi inmediata al hecho narrado; y, por otra, que la difusión fue, para la época, rápida y general. ¿A qué se debe este indudable éxito? ¿Fue por la importancia de la Villa o por la del personaje muerto? Me inclino por lo segundo, pero eso es sólo una hipótesis. 

Para Álora, su poeta primero es y será siempre el genial y anónimo autor de “la bien cercada”. Pero no se olvide al gran escritor del prerrenacimiento español, al culto Mena. Merece nuestro recuerdo, aunque sólo sea por habernos regalado este verso suyo de bellas resonancias latinas: 

la villa no poco cantada 


Nacido en Álora (Málaga), 1960. Profesor de Lengua en Educación Secundaria, Doctor en Filosofía y Letras por la Universidad de Málaga. Colabora con distintos medios con trabajos sobre temas literarios, sociales o religiosos.
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