La cámara del juglar

El romance de “Álora la bien cercada”  (texto) es una de las mas preciadas joyas de ese inagotable tesoro del Romancero. Su entramado histórico está claro: el intento de...

El romance de “Álora la bien cercada”  (texto) es una de las mas preciadas joyas de ese inagotable tesoro del Romancero. Su entramado histórico está claro: el intento de conquista de la plaza por parte las huestes cristianas y la muerte alevosa del Adelantado don Diego de Rivera. Pero quiero aquí referirme a otro aspecto del texto, lo que en un estudio más largo he llamado “riqueza estilística”. ¿Por qué este romance nos sigue produciendo, después de cinco siglos, ese cosquilleo, esa extraña alquimia, no reducible a ninguna fórmula, de la buena literatura?

Considerando el texto desde un punto de vista retórico, se comprueba la sencillez de sus recursos; una retórica sobria, de “encefalograma plano”. Se narran los hechos con exactitud y viveza, pero sin exageración ni adorno. Dominio de lo narrativo y lo descriptivo sobre lo lírico y lo discursivo. Simplemente, con objetividad y casi frialdad, se narran unos hechos. ¿Simplemente?

La complejidad, el mecanismo secreto de esta máquina maravillosa no está en el lenguaje, sino en cómo se estructuran y presentan los hechos y en qué perspectivas el autor-narrador los presenta. La combinación, el cambio de estos puntos de vista producen lo que, para mí, es la clave del texto: su carácter dinámico. Comienza el poema con una vista “panorámica”  del pueblo rodeado por el río y cercado por las tropas cristianas (versos 1-8). Se establecen, así, las coordenadas espacio-temporales, el escenario y el momento de la escena. El punto de mira, a continuación, se desliza hacia los alrededores del castillo. La cámara se acerca y mira a la muchedumbre que se mueve, incluso se acerca al detalle de sus objetos y enseres (vv. 9-16). Pasa a centrarse la mirada sobre las murallas del castillo (la cámara sigue acercándose). Luego (primer plano) se fija en un “morico” que está agazapado entre dos almenas, dispuesto a fastidiar al pobre don Diego (vv. 19-22). Suena la voz del morico -hasta ahora la escena ha estado muda- y la cámara, sin cambiar de distancia, pero sí de dirección, apunta a otro lugar. Los hechos se suceden ahora vertiginosamente: se alza la visera, entra la saeta por esa rendija (vv. 27-30). ¿Qué ocurre? Parece el final. Todavía tiene la cámara tiempo de acercarse y mostrarnos la escena última con un tono familiar, de interior (vv. 31-36). Y en el momento final, que remata magistralmente toda esta mudanza con los dos últimos versos, se aleja no para  describir, sino sugerir, no nombrar, sino  insinuar el desenlace final. Retórica, más que lírica, teatral o cinematográfica.

El juglar anónimo nos sigue cercando con la magia del arte.

 

Secciones
CulturaEspaña

Nacido en Álora (Málaga), 1960. Profesor de Lengua en Educación Secundaria, Doctor en Filosofía y Letras por la Universidad de Málaga. Colabora con distintos medios con trabajos sobre temas literarios, sociales o religiosos.
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