FACULTAD DE ESPIAR

SITEL (Sistema integral de interceptación de las comunicaciones) es un poderoso sistema informático que permite la interceptación sin límite, de todas las telecomunicaciones que tienen lugar en España, y...
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SITEL (Sistema integral de interceptación de las comunicaciones) es un poderoso sistema informático que permite la interceptación sin límite, de todas las telecomunicaciones que tienen lugar en España, y que es utilizado conjuntamente por las Direcciones Generales de Policía y Guardia Civil, así como por el CNI (Centro Nacional de Inteligencia). Además de interceptar las comunicaciones, permite recoger, sin autorización judicial previa, un paquete de datos conocido como “información asociada a la comunicación”. Tiene dos centros de monitorización y un entramado de redes asociadas y terminales remotos situados en las Comisarías de Policía, Comandancias de la Guardia Civil y dependencias del CNI.

Aun cuando se disponía de este avanzado sistema informático de detección, el gobierno de Aznar, al analizar los informes de los Ministerios de Justicia y de Defensa, y del Consejo General del Poder Judicial, que denunciaban importantes problemas de cobertura legal, decidió no ponerlo en funcionamiento, en cuanto que afectaba directamente al “secreto de las comunicaciones” y a que, además, la información asociada que recogía el sistema, podía afectar tanto a la intimidad personal como a la protección de datos de carácter personal. Nadie discutía en aquél momento la bondad de una tecnología que permitía perseguir la delincuencia organizada, de modo eficaz, pero por el contrario se discutían las insuficientes garantías jurídicas y técnicas tanto para preservar los derechos fundamentales de los ciudadanos a través del adecuado control judicial, como para garantizar la destrucción de datos no necesarios para un Tribunal, la exactitud de los archivos que se pongan a disposición judicial, y a la seguridad en la custodia y funcionamiento del sistema que debería de estar asignado a un órgano del Estado y no a una empresa externa.

En Marzo de 2004, el Gobierno de Zapatero entendió que “Los avances tecnológicos deben servir para mejorar la eficacia en la actuación de todos los agentes de la Administración en sus múltiples parcelas, desde la información y la inteligencia hasta el diseño y ejecución operativos” y en base a ello, sin dar la adecuada cobertura legal, decide poner en pruebas a SITEL y lo mantiene así hasta diciembre de ese año, que es cuando entra oficialmente en servicio. Llegados ya a esta última legislatura, vuelve a gobernar el PP y Rajoy decide mantener el sistema activo.

Pero, no termina aquí la cosa en cuanto a la insuficiencia de garantías jurídicas de las interceptaciones. El actual gobierno, decidió apretar más la tuerca de los derechos fundamentales y sacó adelante la Ley Orgánica 13/2015 que reforma la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal. Tras la aprobación de esta reforma, se vuelve a poner en peligro el derecho al secreto de las comunicaciones,  que reconoce el artículo 18.3 de nuestra Constitución y que impide su interceptación, salvo que exista una previa autorización judicial. Esta Ley, abre ostensiblemente el abanico de investigaciones o interceptaciones y además de los delitos de terrorismo y crimen organizado, que eran el objeto de SITEL, los amplía a los delitos cometidos a través de instrumentos informáticos o de cualquier otra tecnología de la información, comunicación o servicio. Y además, mete en un cajón de sastre a “otros delitos dolosos que en virtud de las circunstancias del caso puedan ser considerados de especial gravedad y existan razones fundadas que hagan imprescindible la intervención de las comunicaciones”.

Lo más preocupante es que, en caso de urgencia, cuando las investigaciones se realicen para la averiguación de delitos y existan razones fundadas que hagan imprescindible la investigación, la medida de interceptación podrá ordenarla el Ministerio del Interior, o en su defecto, el Secretario de Estado de Seguridad. Una vez aplicada la medida, se comunicará inmediatamente al Juez competente, dentro del plazo máximo de 24 horas.

¿Qué ha pasado con esta reforma de la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Criminal?  Pues lisa y llanamente, el legislador, al haber ampliado el abanico de delitos, está conculcando los derechos a los que los ciudadanos somos acreedores constitucionalmente, forzando al texto constitucional a decir lo que en realidad no dice, e introduciendo nuevos supuestos y nuevos tipos de delitos que la Constitución no recoge.

En efecto, constitucionalmente hablando, la intervención de las comunicaciones sin previa autorización judicial, ha de tener un carácter extraordinario, habida cuenta de que se trata de suspender el derecho fundamental de un ciudadano. Por ello, esta suspensión extraordinaria expresamente queda limitada a los delitos de terrorismo y crimen organizado. Por tanto, el objetivo que persigue la reforma de la ley, es introducir una vía por la que se puedan añadir otros supuestos y genéricamente introduce delitos de especial gravedad, pero sin especificar cuáles deben de comprenderse. No es válido además, que en la regulación que se ha establecido, las autoridades gubernativas adopten medidas de interceptación y después de tomadas, las comuniquen al juez en el plazo de máximo de 24 horas. Lo correcto jurídicamente es que primero se solicite al juez la intervención de las comunicaciones y que, una vez obtenida esta autorización, se lleve a efecto. En esta línea ya se ha pronunciado el Tribunal Constitucional en una sentencia de 1987. En resumen, que la intervención de las comunicaciones sin orden judicial previa, sólo es posible para los casos excepcionales previstos por la Constitución, pero no para los que ahora ha introducido la ley reformada.

Es evidente que esta reforma, lo que pretende, es introducir un control administrativo preventivo del derecho al secreto de las comunicaciones, legitimando al Ministerio del Interior y a sus órganos, a que realicen interceptaciones de comunicaciones y escuchas, sin ningún control judicial previo, habida cuenta que lo que resulta es que ese control judicial va a ser solicitado a posteriori.

Por ello, la utilización de SITEL sin suficientes garantías jurídicas y ahora, las reformas legales que ha introducido el Gobierno, nos colocan en las antípodas de un sistema verdaderamente democrático. En definitiva, un derecho constitucional tan trascendental, cual es el derecho que tenemos los ciudadanos a que nuestras comunicaciones no sean interceptadas por nadie, va a ser vulnerado por el propio Estado, que pretende adquirir el derecho, dicho coloquialmente, a espiar a sus ciudadanos.  No olvidemos que el poderoso sistema SITEL puede espiar no sólo los teléfonos convencionales, si no todo tipo de comunicaciones electrónicas, redes sociales, ubicación física del ciudadano mediante sistemas GPS, etc. Tiene que quedar muy claro que la Constitución no solo pretende garantizar la intimidad de las personas, sino algo tan importante como es la inviolabilidad de sus comunicaciones de todo tipo, comunicaciones que forman para de su exclusiva esfera privada.

Para terminar, lo que un Estado democrático tiene que garantizar a los ciudadanos, es que no van a ser espiados, salvo en los casos excepcionales que fija la Constitución. Y que, siempre, en todo caso, será un Juez y sólo el, quien dará expresamente la autorización para interceptar comunicaciones del tipo que sean (espiar). No acepto por tanto que ni este Gobierno ni ningún otro, tenga la facultad administrativa de espiarme, sin ningún control judicial.

 

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Soy un jubilado activo dedicado al voluntariado social, permanentemente aprendiendo en materia del derecho de las nuevas tecnologías y crítico con la política y la injusticia social.
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