De hipotecas y bancos

El Tribunal Supremo (Sala de lo Civil, Sección Pleno) ha dictado la Sentencia 705/2015 de 23 de diciembre de 2015, estableciendo que es abusiva la cláusula que fijaba el...
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El Tribunal Supremo (Sala de lo Civil, Sección Pleno) ha dictado la Sentencia 705/2015 de 23 de diciembre de 2015, estableciendo que es abusiva la cláusula que fijaba el BBVA en una hipoteca por la que imponía al cliente/prestatario el pago de todos los gastos, tributos y comisiones derivados del préstamo hipotecario. Es por ello que es tan importante la reclamación y/o devolución de los gastos de hipoteca a fin de recuperar el dinero.

En la hipoteca analizada por el TS se establecía, en relación a los gastos de la misma, lo siguiente: “Son de cuenta exclusiva de la parte prestataria todos los tributos, comisiones y gastos ocasionados por la preparación, formalización, subsanación, tramitación de escrituras, modificación -incluyendo división, segregación o cualquier cambio que suponga alteración de la garantía- y ejecución de este contrato, y por los pagos y reintegros derivados del mismo, así como por la constitución, conservación y cancelación de su garantía, siendo igualmente a su cargo las primas y demás gastos correspondientes al seguro de daños, que la parte prestataria se obliga a tener vigente.”

Pues bien, el Tribunal Supremo ha acordado la nulidad de esta cláusula que, entre otras cosas, establece la autorización del cliente/prestatario para que el Banco le cargue en su cuenta las cantidades necesarias para la inscripción de la hipoteca (y títulos previos) en el Registro de la Propiedad  y, en su caso, las cancelaciones de cargas preferentes y las que procedan por la preparación de antecedentes que deba realizar el Banco para el otorgamiento de la escritura de cancelación de hipoteca; se añaden también los gastos, en caso de impago, por la reclamación judicial y/o extrajudicial de la deuda incluidos honorarios de Abogado y Procurador, aun cuando su intervención no fuere preceptiva.

El Tribunal Supremo establece que con dicha cláusula el Banco pretende atribuir al cliente/consumidor todos los gastos derivados de la formalización de la hipoteca de la concertación y desarrollo del contrato, “supliendo y en ocasiones contraviniendo, normas legales con previsiones diferentes al respecto”.

Concretamente el Tribunal Supremo establece que las normas aplicables a este tema son las recogidas en el artículo 89.3 de la Ley General de Consumidores y Usuarios, que establece cuando nos encontramos ante una cláusula abusiva.

Nos dice el Alto Tribunal que ante una escritura notarial, los gastos de notario y registro de la propiedad tienen que ser abonados por el solicitante del servicio a cuyo favor se inscriba el derecho; pues bien, quien tiene el interés principal en la documentación e inscripción de la escritura de préstamo con garantía hipotecaria es, sin duda, el Banco/prestamista, pues así obtiene un título ejecutivo, constituye la garantía real y adquiere la posibilidad de ejecución especial.

 

En atención a todo ello el Tribunal Supremo considera abusiva  la cláusula discutida porque ocasiona al cliente/consumidor un desequilibrio importante que no hubiera aceptado razonablemente si se hubiese negociado con él y que, además, aparece recogida en el catálogo de cláusulas que la ley califica como abusivas.

 

En relación al tema de los tributos, el Tribunal Supremo, en atención a los artículos 8, 15.1 y 27.1 de la Ley del Impuesto sobre Transmisiones Patrimoniales y Actos Jurídicos Documentados, entiende que el Banco/prestamista no queda al margen de los tributos que pudieran devengarse con motivo del préstamo hipotecario, sino que, al menos en lo que respecta al impuesto sobre actos jurídicos documentados, será sujeto pasivo en lo que se refiere a la constitución del derecho y, en todo caso, la expedición de las copias, actas y testimonios que interese y que, a través de la cláusula que se declara nula, carga indebidamente sobre el cliente/prestatario.  Por todo ello, dicho Tribunal concluye que la cláusula que impone al cliente/prestatario el pago de los tributos (la cuota gradual del Impuesto de Actos Jurídicos Documentados que paga la hipoteca en cuanto acto inscribible y la cuota fija) vulnera normas imperativas, concretamente el artículo 89.3 c) LGCU, que considera como abusiva y por lo tanto nula la estipulación que imponga al consumidor el pago de tributos en los que el sujeto pasivo es el empresario.

 

En relación al seguro de daños, el Tribunal Supremo concluye que la imposición de su pago al cliente/prestatario no es abusiva porque es consecuencia de una obligación legal (art. 8 Ley del Mercado Hipotecario) y la obligación de pagar el seguro corresponde al tomador del mismo, conforme al art. 14 de la Ley de Contrato de Seguro.

 

En lo referente a las costas procesales concluye el Tribunal Supremo que la atribución al cliente/prestatario en todo caso de las costas procesales infringe normas procesales de orden público, lo que comporta sin más su nulidad, en base al art.  86 LGCU y art. 8 LCGC, añadiendo que introduce un evidente desequilibrio en la posición de las partes.

 

Respecto a la imputación al cliente de los honorarios de abogado y aranceles de procurador de los que se haya servido el prestamista, incluso cuando su intervención no sea preceptiva, establece el TS que la estipulación vulnera el art. 32.5 de la LEC, fijando que, además de la falta de reciprocidad entre los derechos y obligaciones de las partes y la dificultad para el cliente/consumidor de valorar las consecuencias por desconocer, cuándo firma el préstamo hipotecario, todas las acciones que se podrían entablar contra él utilizando el Banco abogado y procurador sin ser obligatorio, lo que de por sí es suficiente para considerar la cláusula como abusiva, resulta correcta la declaración de nulidad de la misma conforme a los arts. 86 TRLCU y 8 LCGC.

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